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Curriculum/educational language that features a specific vocabulary and way of interacting with text that differs from a standard, everyday language.
A process by which a series of unrelated pieces of information can become linked into a meaningful single unit or whole.
The pattern of cognitive processes that affect how learners interact and perform in learning situations.
Refers to a set of processes that jointly fixes a memory trace (fact, happening etc.) after it has been acquired.
A large collection of English Language texts (spoken and written words) organised along domain of use, text purpose and frequency of linguistic units/features characteristics within a Standard Language, available online for academic enquiry. These large word banks available for search and research into language use. Examples are the British National Corpus and Corpus of Contemporary American English.
"...a set of conditions where practice had been uniformly associated with improved performance. Significant improvements in performance were realized when individuals were 1) given a task with a well-defined goal, 2) motivated to improve, 3) provided with feedback, and 4) provided with ample opportunities for repetition and gradual refinements of their performance."
Anders Ericsson, K. (2008), Deliberate Practice and Acquisition of Expert Performance: A General Overview. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15: 988-994. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00227.x
A written or printed letter (or cluster of letters) that corresponds with a specific phoneme. Examples: <ch>, <t>, <x> etc.
The smallest unit of meaning in a language.
The study of the meaning and structure units in a language.
A writing system in which the pronunciation of words is often not directly or consistently predictable from their written form.
The written form of a language - how speech sounds are standardly represented within a language.
The smallest unit of sound that changes meaning, such as the element p in “tap,” which separates that word from “tab,” “tag,” and “tan” Examples: /t/. /ks/, /p/ etc.
The ability to keep track of the position within a string of information between breaks in attention, for example, when looking up and down during copying tasks.
In a qualitative assessment, the information (data) collected is usually in the form of words and images. It is a subjective method of data collection using the observation of performance and interviews etc. The data is less generalisable, i.e. we can draw fewer general conclusions from findings than we can when using statistical methods.
'Meaningful' - linking to facts and knowledge we have of the world and its contents.
A string of information - separate bits of information that do not blend together to form meaning units so are processed one at a time.
A writing system in which the pronunciation of words is usually directly or consistently predictable from their written form.
visual attention span
The number of orthographic units (letters/symbols) that a person can process at a glance.
A situation where the volume of visual information is off-putting or confusing for the person perceiving it.